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Table 1 Characteristics of patients at ICU admission*

From: High flow nasal oxygen therapy to avoid invasive mechanical ventilation in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia: a retrospective study

  Overall (n = 138) Standard oxygen therapy (n = 62) HFNO (n = 76) p
Demographic and clinical characteristics
 Male—no. (%) 112 (81%) 50 (81%) 62 (82%) 1.00
 Median age, years (IQR) 59 (48–67) 60 (51–67) 60 (52–67) 0.64
 Immunocompromized patient—no. (%) 20 (14%) 9 (14%) 11 (14%) 1.00
 Diabetes—no. (%) 43 (31%) 19 (31%) 24 (32%) 1.00
 Hypertension—no. (%) 56 (41%) 19 (31%) 37 (49%) 0.049
 Chronic respiratory failure—no. (%) 4 (3%) 2 (3%) 2 (3%) 1.00
 Chronic kidney failure—no. (%) 7 (5%) 3 (5%) 4 (5%) 1.00
 Median BMI, kg/m2 (IQR) 29 (26–33) 27 (26–33) 29 (25–33) 0.59
 Median SAPS II (IQR) 36 (26–46) 35 (26–45) 36 (27–47) 0.62
 Median time from onset symptoms to ICU admission, days (IQR) 10 (8–13) 8 (8–13) 10 (8–13) 0.002
Respiratory finding
 Median 02 flow, liter/minute (IQR) 9 (4–12) 6 (5–13) 9 (6–15) 0.003
 Median PaO2, mmHg (IQR) 71 (64–84) 71 (63–85) 69 (63–82) 0.45
 Median respiratory rate, (IQR) 30 (27–35) 30 (26–35) 33 (28–36) 0.018
 Median O2 maximal flow rate, Liter/minute, (IQR) 12 (9–15) 12 (9–15) 12 (9–15) 0.049
Laboratory finding
 Median Lymphocyte, G/L (IQR) 0.8 (0.6–1.1) 0.9 (0.6–1.1) 0.8 (0.6–1.0) 0.10
 Median Fibrinogen, g/L (IQR) 6.59 (5.9–7.3) 6.57 (6.0–7.3) 6.7 (6.2–7.3) 0.50
 Median Phosphor, mmol/L (IQR) 0.82 (0.69–0.95) 0.8 (0.71–0.94) 0.84 (0.70–0.94) 0.29
 Median CRP, mmol/L (IQR) 182 (114–263) 182 (106–262) 182 (125–269) 0.64
 Median ferritin, µg/L (IQR) 1502 (874–2530) 1137 (880–2495) 1701 (885–2677) 0.036
Chest CT scan finding
 Median ground glass surface, % (IQR) 50 (25–60) 50 (25–60) 50 (25–60) 0.27
 Steroids during ICU stay—no.(%) 66 (48%) 25 (40%) 41 (54%) 0.15
  1. *HFNO high flow nasal canula oxygen, SAPS II Simplified Acute Physiology Score, BMI Body Mass Index, CRP C-reactive protein, ICU Intensive Care Unit