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Table 1 Scores used for comfort, cough and sedation (by OAA/S and RASS scores)

From: Pain and dyspnea control during awake fiberoptic bronchoscopy in critically ill patients: safety and efficacy of remifentanil target-controlled infusion

Comfort and cough scale   2 3 4 5
Comfort* No reaction Slight grimacing Heavy grimacing Head or limb defending
Cough** None Slight Moderate Important
OAA/S scale*** 1 2 3 4 5
Responsiveness speech Does not respond to noxious stimuli Responds only after mild prodding or shaking Responds only after name called loudly and/or repeatedly Lethargic response to name spoken in normal tone Responds readily to name spoken in normal tone
Facial expression Marked relaxation Mild relaxation Normal
Eyes Glazed and marked ptosis Glazed or mild ptosis Clear, no ptosis
RASS score**** – 5 − 4 − 3 − 2 − 1
RASS Unarousable Deep sedation Moderate sedation Light sedation Drowsy
  1. * Puchner et al. [23]
  2. ** Chalumeau et al. [20]
  3. *** OAA/S scale: Observer Assessment of Alertness/Sedation scale which evaluates the level of consciousness in patients sedated [22]
  4. **** Richmond Agitation Sedation Score [21]
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