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Table 4 Loading of the PS-ICU scale items from principal axis exploratory factor analysis with Oblimin direct rotation (items #14, #22, #30, #31, #39, #43 and #47 were preliminarily removed)

From: An international tool to measure perceived stressors in intensive care units: the PS-ICU scale

  Items Factors (F)
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6
9 Disagreement and/or lack of coordination with other units concerning a patient’s treatment 0.668      
10 Family conflict or disagreement concerning the patient’s treatment plan 0.554      
26 Family whose beliefs or lifestyle are contradictory with my values or the functioning of the unit 0.537      
27 Family’s misunderstanding of the gravity of the diagnosis or the prognosis of the patient 0.533      
42 Uncertainty concerning the diagnosis or the therapy project of the patient 0.486      
6 Shortage of beds in the unit 0.465      
4 Contradictory information given by other healthcare professionals to the family 0.464      
35 Family which does not trust me or does not trust the team 0.393      
41 Caring for a patient who should not be treated by the ICU 0.375      
15 Lack of support from the administration 0.302      
34 Death of a patient with whom I had developed special ties   0.626     
28 Series of patient deaths in the unit over a short period   0.615     
45 Having to announce a bad diagnosis to the patient or his/her family or be present when such a diagnosis is announced   0.581     
29 Patient who makes me think of someone close to me or of myself   0.540     
1 Socially isolated end-of-life patient or one with no immediate family   0.509     
49 Decision to stop or reduce treatment   0.476     
7 Families’ distress or emotions   0.402     
5 Caring for young patients or who have young children   0.363     
44 Patient suffering physically or psychologically   0.347     
18 Having to execute care tasks quickly in emergency cases    0.709    
40 Treating complex or serious pathologies    0.622    
16 Risk of error, fear of doing a poor job    0.596    
37 Having to perform tasks for which I have neither knowledge nor skills    0.509    
25 Patient who deteriorates in an unexpected or unexplained manner    0.405    
20 Working pace or working hours hardly compatible with family or social life     0.745   
23 Schedule changes, overtime     0.714   
36 Continuous and heavy workload     0.574   
50 Being on call or working nights     0.520   
48 Accumulated workloads resulting from clinical activity, training, research or teaching     0.405   
24 Working while experiencing difficult personal events   0.309   0.351   
32 Lack of staff     0.347   0.344
46 Lack of equality in the distribution of tasks among healthcare professionals     0.326   
13 Difficulty to find my place, have my skills recognized, or voice my opinion within the team      0.623  
38 Assessed or judged by the other members of the team      0.54  
17 Negative atmosphere prevailing in the team, gossip, rumors within the team      0.432  
3 Lack of recognition (from the patient, the family, the team, the hierarchy)      0.425  
21 Conflicts with members of the healthcare team 0.327     0.356  
8 Inadequate or under-equipped healthcare space or defective materials       0.44
33 Non-supportive, aggressive or delirious patient       0.394
12 Incomprehensible or unnecessary care relative to the patient’s situation       0.385
2 Colleague not doing his/her work properly       0.380
19 Plaintive patient who makes many requests    0.364    0.374
11 Too many professionals around the patient in an emergency situation       0.339
Eigen values   3.71 3 3.24 2.24 1.92
% of variance explained   8.62 6.98 7.55 5.2 4.47
  1. For easy reading, all loading values < 0.30 were not reported. We present items in the order of the factors and according to their load on each factor. Some items had double saturation (#19, #21, #24, #32)