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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the study population

From: Infectious events in patients with severe COVID-19: results of a cohort of patients with high prevalence of underlying immune defect

Type of infection Community-acquired
(n = 7)
Early hospital-acquired
(n = 14)
Late hospital-acquired
(n = 15)
No infection (n = 64) p
Age (years) 58 [53–69] 58 [52–67] 64 [56–70] 58 [53–65] 0.589
Male 5 (71) 9 (64) 10 (67) 49 (77) 0.737
Comorbidities      
 BMI (kg/m2) 31 [27–33] 28 [26–31] 29 [25–32] 27 [24–30] 0.550
 Cardiac disease 3 (43) 3 (21) 2 (13) 10 (16) 0.320
 COPD 0 (0) 1 (7) 0 (0) 1 (2) 0.494
 Diabetes 3 (43) 6 (43) 3 (20) 15 (23) 0.325
 Chronic kidney disease 1 (14) 2 (14) 2 (13) 9 (14) 1.000
 Hypertension 5 (71) 7 (50) 9 (60) 29 (45) 0.485
 Solid tumor 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 9 (14) 0.135
 Hematological malignancy 3 (43) 2 (14) 2 (13) 8 (13) 0.202
 SOT 1 (14) 2 (14) 1 (7) 6 (9) 0.887
 Any ARBs 3 (50) 2 (14) 7 (47) 15 (23) 0.030
 Delay since onset (days) 14 [11–17] 8 [5–10] 9 [6–12] 8 [5–11] 0.077
Exposure before admission      
 NSAIDs 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (2) 0.904
 Corticosteroids 1 (14) 2 (14) 4 (27) 12 (19) 0.831
 Antibiotics 2 (29) 7 (50) 6 (40) 30 (47) 0.766
ICU admission      
 SAPSII 40 [28–42] 33 [24–47] 34 [24–50] 23 [18–33] 0.050
 O2 (L/min) 4 [2–11] 11 [3–14] 9 [6–15] 8 [6–12] 0.479
 Focal opacity at chest X-ray 1 (14) 0 (0) 2 (13) 2 (3) 0.197
 PaO2/FiO2 147 [114–275] 113 [100–159] 156 [121–270] 157 [115–234] 0.166
 Leukocytes (G/L) 7.3 [4.9–9.3] 6.9 [6.1–9.6] 8.3 [5.0–10.3] 7.1 [5.2–9.1] 0.614
 Lymphocytes (G/L) 0.64 [0.46–0.93] 0.83 [0.77–1.48] 0.60 [0.38–0.98] 0.78 [0.55–1.14] 0.212
 Lactate (mmol/L) 0.90 [0.80–1.60] 1.2 [1.0–1.4] 1.2 [1.1–1.6] 1.2 [0.9–1.5] 0.745
 CPK (UI/L) 410 [155–579] 126 [119–328] 114.00 [63–346] 182 [80–372] 0.788
 Creatinine (µmol/L) 65 [61–75] 89 [60–144] 70 [59–125] 80 [66–120] 0.591
 IL-6 (ng/mL) 95 [70–121] 87 [47–291] 121 [83–186] 81 [40–111] 0.264
 Gammaglobulin (g/L) 3 [3–11] 8 [8–12] 8 [7–11] 10 [8–12] 0.236
 β-d-Glucan (pg/mL) 0 [0–0] 0 [0–0] 0 [0–177] 0 [0–0] 0.073
Therapeutics      
 Dexamethasone 3 (50) 9 (64) 8 (53) 13 (20) 0.002
 Eculizumab 1 (14) 0 (0) 3 (20.0) 6 (9) 0.335
 Tocilizumab 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 5 (8) 0.398
 Mechanical ventilation 6 (86) 14 (100) 15 (100) 19 (30)  < 0.001
 Vasopressors 4 (67) 13 (93) 14 (93) 17 (27)  < 0.001
 Renal replacement therapy 1 (17) 3 (21) 6 (40) 2 (3) 0.001
 VAP (/1000 h of MV) 6.9[1.5–13.0] 4.4[2.8–6.7]  < 0.001
 ICU Stay (days) 12[9–13] 17[13–25] 20[13–31] 4[2–6]  < 0.001
 ICU mortality 4 (57) 8 (57) 6 (40) 10 (16) 0.002
  1. Data are reported as absolute value with percentage for categorical variables or median with interquartile interval for quantitative variables. β-d-Glucan was considered positive when ≥ 80 pg/mL
  2. ARBs angiotensin receptor blockers, BMI body mass index, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CPK creatine phosphokinase, ICU intensive care unit, MV mechanical ventilation, NSAIDs non-steroid anti-inflammatory, SAPSII Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, SOT solid organ transplantation, VAP ventilator-associated pneumonia