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Table 3 Clinical Outcomes at 28 days

From: Protective ventilation and outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19: a cohort study

Outcomes All, n = 1503 Survivors, n = 837 Nonsurvivors, n = 666 p value
ICU length of stay, median (IQR), d 10 (6–18) 10 (5–21) 10 (6–16) 0.119
Hospital length of stay, median (IQR), d 16 (11–26) 21 (14–33) 13 (8–19)  < 0.001
Invasive mechanical ventilation 1180 (79) 552 (66) 628 (94)  < 0.001
Duration of mechanical ventilation, median (IQR), d 10 (6–17) 9 (5 – 18) 11 (6–16) 0.303
Prone positioning 427 (36) 201 (36) 226 (36) 0.570
Use of noninvasive ventilationa 320 (21) 165 (20) 155 (23) 0.012
Use of high-flow nasal cannulaa 139 (9) 84 (10) 55 (8) 0.031
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation 10 (1) 3 (1) 7 (1) 0.186
Vasopressors 1095 (73) 478 (57) 617(93)  < 0.001
Renal replacement therapy 528 (35) 187 (22) 341 (51)  < 0.001
Tracheostomy 169 (11)) 116 (14) 53 (8)  < 0.001
Delirium 223 (15) 119 (14) 104 (16) 0.494
Ventilator-associated pneumonia 393(26) 175 (21) 218 (33)  < 0.001
Thromboembolic event 279 (19) 143 (17) 136 (20) 0.11
Cardiac arrhythmia 263 (17%) 101 (12) 162 (24)  < 0.001
Treatment withhold or withdraw during ICU stay 288 (19) 55 (7) 233 (35)  < 0.001
  1. ICU: intensive care unit; IQR: interquartile range; Data are n. (%), unless otherwise stated
  2. aTo avoid intubation or prior to intubation. Comparisons were made with t test, Mann–Whitney U tests or chi-square test as appropriate