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Table 2 Univariable and multivariable analysis: factors associated with 30-day mortality

From: Outcome of cancer patients considered for intensive care unit admission in two university hospitals in the Netherlands: the danger of delayed ICU admissions and off-hour triage decisions

  30-day
Mortality
Univariable analysis Multivariable analysis
Odds ratio 95% CI p-value Odds ratio 95% CI p-value
Age 1.02 1.01–1.03 0.001* 1.04 1.02–1.05  < 0.001*
Male 192 (38.5%) 1.08 0.80–1.46 0.61    
Solid malignancy (ref) 176 (35%)       
Hematological malignancy 117 (42.7%) 1.39 1.02–1.87 0.03* 1.63 1.02–2.60 0.04*
Metastatic disease 101 (41.2%) 1.23 0.91–1.68 0.19 1.05 0.56–1.96 0.89
Cancer recurrence 32 (45.1%) 1.39 0.85–2.27 0.19 1.39 0.74–2.60 0.31
Controlled cancer (ref) 98 (26.4%)       
Uncontrolled cancer 197 (48.3%) 2.60 1.92–3.52  < 0.001* 2.30 1.54–3.41  < 0.001*
CCI 1.08 1.01–1.15 0.02* 1.02 0.89–1.15 0.82
ECOG PS before hospital admission
 0 (ref) 47 (26%)       
 1 107 (35.9%) 1.60 1.06–2.40 0.02* 1.33 0.81–2.18 0.27
 2 82 (42.9%) 2.15 1.38–3.33 0.001* 1.84 1.07–3.19 0.03*
 3 44 (48.9%) 2.73 1.61–4.64  < 0.001* 2.40 1.21–4.77 0.01*
 4 13 (86.7%) 18.53 4.03–85.19  < 0.001* 12.42 2.34–65.93 0.003*
MEWS   1.13 1.05–1.20  < 0.001* 1.13 1.04–1.23 0.006*
Cancer treatment 252 (36.8%) 0.77 0.50–1.20 0.25    
Immunocompromised 214 (38.2%) 1.09 0.79–1.51 0.61    
ICU triage decision
 ICU admission (ref) 141 (36.9%)       
 Too well to benefit—no ICU admission 66 (25.6%) 0.59 0.42–0.83 0.003* 0.66 0.42–1.04 0.08
 Too well to benefit—delayed ICU 34 (45.9%) 1.45 0.88—2.40 0.15 1.83 1.00—3.33 0.048*
 Too sick to benefit 54 (81.8%) 7.69 3.98–14.87  < 0.001* 7.78 3.38–17.89  < 0.001*
Year ICU consult
 2016 (ref) 78 (36.4%)    
 2017 77 (37.7%) 1.06 0.71–1.57 0.78    
 2018 87 (39.2%) 1.12 0.76–1.66 0.56    
 2019 53 (37.9%) 1.06 0.68–1.65 0.79    
Earlier ICU admission before consult 18 (23.4%) 0.47 0.27–0.81 0.007* 0.82 0.41–1.64 0.57
One ICU physician (ref) 109 (34.3%)       
Two ICU physicians 155 (40.3%) 1.29 0.95–1.76 0.10 0.97 0.64–1.46 0.87
More than two ICU physicians 31 (40.3%) 1.29 0.78–2.15 0.33 0.95 0.48–1.87 0.88
One referring physician (ref) 53 (32.3%)       
Two referring physicians 195 (39.3%) 1.36 0.93–1.97 0.11 1.27 0.80–2.03 0.31
More than two referring physicians 45 (39.8%) 1.39 0.84–2.28 0.20 1.24 0.64–2.38 0.53
Location consult
 Emergency room (ref) 57 (41.6%)    
 Ward 188 (38.9%) 0.89 0.61–1.32 0.57 1.42 0.86–2.35 0.18
 Other 50 (31.3%) 0.64 0.40–1.03 0.07 1.70 0.90–3.20 0.10
On-hours (ref) 103 (32.7%)       
Off-hours 192 (41.3%) 1.45 1.07–1.95 0.02* 1.61 1.09–2.38 0.02*
Weekend 95 (38.9%) 1.07 0.79–1.46 0.67    
Consult reason
 Shock 68 (45.3%) 2.49 1.48–4.19 0.001* 1.78 0.97–3.26 0.06
 Respiratory insufficiency 188 (38.9%) 1.48 1.02–2.17 0.04* 1.18 0.77–1.83 0.45
 Altered consciousness 68 (48.9%) 2.12 1.35–3.34 0.001* 1.73 1.06–2.83 0.03*
 Sepsis 87 (40.7%) 1.28 0.84–1.97 0.25    
 Acute kidney injury 50 (53.2%) 2.70 1.65–4.41  < 0.001* 2.47 1.41–4.34 0.002*
 High MEWS 10 (43.5%) 1.93 0.80–4.64 0.14 2.00 0.70–5.72 0.20
 Hemodynamic instability 102 (36.4%) 0.69 0.42–1.14 0.15 0.70 0.42–1.18 0.18
 Other 34 (35.4%) 1.14 0.70–1.87 0.59    
  1. Table shows data of first ICU triage decision of the hospital admission
  2. A p-value of < 0.05 is considered significant (marked by an *)
  3. CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, ECOG PS Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status, MEWS Modified Early Warning Score, On-hours during dayshift