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Table 2 Baseline characteristics between AKI patients with and without renal recovery in the derivation cohort

From: Cell cycle arrest biomarkers for predicting renal recovery from acute kidney injury: a prospective validation study

Variables Recovery (n = 115) Non-recovery (n = 79) p value
Baseline characteristics
 Age (year) 62 (49, 76) 62 (50, 71) 0.483
 Female gender 71 (61.7) 46 (58.2) 0.656
 BMI (kg/m2) 23.3 (20.5, 24.8) 22.6 (19.5, 23.9) 0.354
 APACHE II score 14.0 (12.0, 16.0) 16.0 (14.0, 18.0)  < 0.001
 Nonrenal SOFA score 4 (1, 6) 6 (3, 9)  < 0.001
Admission type
 Medical 18 (15.6) 12 (15.2) 0.887
 Surgical (abdominal surgery) 51 (44.3) 42 (53.2) 0.213
 Surgical (non-abdominal surgery) 38 (33.0) 17 (21.5) 0.189
 Emergency 8 (7.0) 8 (10.1) 0.536
Comorbidities
 COPD/asthma 9 (7.8) 11 (13.9) 0.229
 Cardiovascular disease 26 (22.6) 14 (17.7) 0.472
 Chronic liver disease 26 (22.6) 16 (20.3) 0.726
 Diabetes 28 (24.3) 21 (26.6) 0.739
 Hypertension 50 (43.5) 41 (51.9) 0.305
 CKD 6 (5.2) 4 (5.1) 1.000
Sepsis 51 (44.3) 38 (48.1) 0.661
Mechanical ventilation 96 (83.5) 64 (81.0) 0.703
PaO2/FiO2 316.0 (223.7, 404.0) 284.2 (210.8, 359.15) 0.026
Use of vasopressor 34 (29.6) 34 (43.0) 0.065
Use of diuresis 13 (11.3) 15 (19.0) 0.216
AKI diagnosed by UO criteria 30 (26.1) 35 (44.3) 0.002
Serum creatinine diagnosing AKI (μmol/L) 116.5 (92.3, 186.4) 137.4 (98.5, 230.6)  < 0.001
Kinetic GFR for 24 h (mL/min/1.73m2) 55.4 (40.2, 86.3) 38.4 (19.8, 58.7)  < 0.001
AKI stage 2–3 39 (33.9) 51 (64.5)  < 0.001
Persistent AKI 38 (33.0) 53 (67.1)  < 0.001
[TIMP-2]*[IGFBP7] day 0 [(ng/mL)2/1000] 0.3 (0.1, 0.6) 1.1 (0.2, 5.5)  < 0.001
TIMP-2 day 0 (ng/mL) 3.3 (2.2, 6.3) 8.5 (3.5, 21.5)  < 0.001
IGFBP7 day 0 (ng/mL) 35.2 (20.0, 90.0) 100.9 (41.2, 329.1)  < 0.001
[TIMP-2]*[IGFBP7] day 1 [(ng/mL)2/1000] 0.3 (0.1, 0.8) 0.4 (0.2, 1.8) 0.104
TIMP-2 day 1 (ng/mL) 3.6 (2.5, 6.8) 5.9 (2.8, 13.5) 0.591
IGFBP7 day 1 (ng/mL) 70.0 (40.6, 120.4) 73.2 (30.7, 179.5) 0.019
  1. Values are median (interquartile range) or n (%). AKI diagnosed by UO criteria was defined as patients who were diagnosed by UO criteria and/or SCr criteria, meanwhile AKI classification by UO criteria was equal or greater than SCr criteria. Persistent AKI was defined as kidney dysfunction without recovery within 48 h
  2. AKI acute kidney injury, BMI body mass index, APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CKD chronic kidney disease, UO urine output, SCr serum creatinine, TIMP-2 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2, IGFBP-7 insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7