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Table 2 Intensive care unit (ICU) and inpatient rehabilitation unit stay: factors associated with reduced health-related quality of life and dyspnea 12 months after ICU admission on univariate regression analysis

From: Health-related quality of life of COVID-19 two and 12 months after intensive care unit admission

  All patients
n = 94
12-month EQ-5D-3L
Visual Analog Scale
n = 82
12-month EQ-5D-3L
Time trade-off
n = 86
12-month mMRC
dyspnea scale
n = 86
Linear regression coefficient ± SD P Linear regression coefficient ± SD P Linear regression coefficient ± SD P
ICU stay        
PaO2/FiO2 on ICU admission, mmHg, median (IQR) 136 (109–185) 0.02 ± 0.03 0.402 0.001 ± 0.001 0.292  − 0.001 ± 0.002 0.931
SAPS 2, median (IQR) 33 (26–39) 0.04 ± 0.17 0.794  − 0.001 ± 0.003 0.714 0.001 ± 0.011 0.900
Oxygenation strategy    0.275   0.860   0.969
Standard oxygen, n (%) 61 (65) -   -   -  
HFNC, n (%) 10 (11)  − 9.76 ± 6.34 0.128 0.04 ± 0.12 0.736 0.06 ± 0.37 0.869
CPAP, n (%) 17 (18)  − 6.55 ± 4.73 0.170  − 0.003 ± 0.094 0.977 0.11 ± 0.30 0.725
NIV, n (%) 6 (6) 1.07 ± 6.80 0.875 0.15 ± 0.14 0.270 0.17 ± 0.44 0.698
Worst PaO2/FiO2 in the ICU, mmHg, median (IQR) 112 (85–145) 0.04 ± 0.03 0.275 0.001 ± 0.001 0.120  − 0.003 ± 0.002 0.120
Intubation, n (%) 73 (78)  − 2.72 ± 4.69 0.564  − 0.13 ± 0.09 0.141  − 0.05 ± 0.28 0.866
Neuromuscular blocking agents, n (%) 61 (65)  − 1.88 ± 5.24 0.722 0.07 ± 0.11 0.543  − 0.53 ± 0.33 0.107
Prone positioning, n (%) 59 (63)  − 2.80 ± 3.75 0.457  − 0.07 ± 0.07 0.340  − 0.25 ± 0.23 0.275
Vasopressors, n (%) 25 (27)  − 3.87 ± 3.87 0.320 0.01 ± 0.08 0.924  − 0.11 ± 0.24 0.644
Renal replacement therapy, n (%) 8 (9) 2.48 ± 5.95 0.678 0.05 ± 0.12 0.680 0.06 ± 0.38 0.879
Extracorporeal lung support, n (%) 11 (12) 1.44 ± 5.25 0.784  − 0.08 ± 0.11 0.476 0.42 ± 0.33 0.201
Duration of mechanical ventilation, days 30 (20–41) 0.04 ± 0.12 0.729  − 0.003 ± 0.003 0.211 0.01 ± 0.01 0.379
Tracheostomy, n (%) 24 (26)  − 4.02 ± 3.91 0.307  − 0.25 ± 0.07 0.001 0.26 ± 0.25 0.288
Steroids given in the ICU, n (%) 15 (16)  − 2.41 ± 4.99 0.631  − 0.01 ± 0.10 0.905 0.13 ± 0.31 0.674
ICU length of stay, days, median (IQR) 25 (15–46)  − 0.04 ± 0.10 0.685  − 0.005 ± 0.002 0.005 0.01 ± 0.01 0.069
On admission to the rehabilitation facility        
mMRC dyspnea scale, median (IQR) 3 (2–4)  − 3.37 ± 1.54 0.032  − 0.04 ± 0.03 0.151 0.09 ± 0.09 0.331
Weight loss, % 11 (7–15) 0.41 ± 0.28 0.156 0.01 ± 0.01 0.128  − 0.03 ± 0.02 0.124
Albumin, g.L−1, median (IQR) 29 (26–31) 0.22 ± 0.34 0.522 0.01 ± 0.01 0.852 0.01 ± 0.02 0.721
Prealbumin, g.L−1, median (IQR) 0.24 (0.19–0.28) 6.00 ± 21.02 0.776  − 0.10 ± 0.42 0.804  − 1.86 ± 1.29 0.153
  1. Continuous variables are expressed as median (interquartile range [IQR]) and categorical variables are expressed as absolute value (%)
  2. Health-related quality of life is assessed with the EQ-5D-3L (EuroQol Research Foundation https://euroqol.org). Quality of life time trade-off utility values were calculated using the French value set. Perceived health was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS) from 0 (worst) to 100 (best). Dyspnea was assessed by the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale
  3. SAPS, Simplified Acute Physiologic Score; HFNC, high-flow nasal cannula; CPAP, continuous positive airway pressure; NIV, noninvasive ventilation; mMRC, modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale
  4. The linear regression coefficients represent the average increase or decrease in the variable to be explained when we compare two subjects with explanatory quantitative variables that differ by one unit or when we compare two subjects with explanatory qualitative variables taking the reference value for one of the subjects and another value for the second subject