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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study patients according to the presence or absence of mottling at baseline or during the first 24 h

From: Effects of mean arterial pressure target on mottling and arterial lactate normalization in patients with septic shock: a post hoc analysis of the SEPSISPAM randomized trial

Characteristic No mottling
n = 451
Mottling
n = 296
p-value
Age—years 65 [54–75] 69 [58–78] 0.002
Male sex 302 [67] 201 [67] 0.81
SAPS II 53 [43–63] 63 [50–77] < 0.0001
SOFA 10 [8–12] 11 [9–13] < 0.0001
Pre-existing condition—no (%)    
 Ischemic heart disease 35 [8] 43 [14] 0.003
 Chronic heart failure 55 [12] 53 [18] 0.03
 COPD 63 [14] 39 [13] 0.83
 Chronic kidney disease 49 [11] 42 [14] 0.21
 Cirrhosis 29 [6] 23 [8] 0.56
 Chronic arterial hypertension 208 [46] 166 [57] 0.008
 Cancer or autoimmune disease 167 [37] 97 [33] 0.24
Source of infection—no (%)    
 Lung 252 [56] 136 [46] 0.009
 Abdomen 60 [13] 66 [22] 0.001
 Urinary tract 59 [13] 26 [9] 0.08
 Others 80 [18] 68 [23] 0.09
Community-acquired infection—no (%) 296 [66] 199 [67] 0.69
Hemodynamic and biochemical variable    
Mean arterial pressure -mmHg 74 [65–83] 71 [61–81] 0.01
Heart rate—beats/min 100 [81–117] 107 [88–126] < 0.0001
Arterial pH 7.34 [7.28–7.39] 7 .25 [7.15–7.35] < 0.0001
Serum lactate level—mmol/L 2 [1.3–3.1] 3.2 [1.8–5.4] < 0.0001
Fluid therapy before inclusion—mL 2500 [2000–3250] 3000 [2500–4000] < 0.0001
Vasoactive drug infusions at randomization—no (%)    
Norepinephrine 434 [96] 274 [93] 0.04
Dobutamine 21 [5] 20 [7] 0.25
Epinephrine 18 [4] 36 [12] 0.0004
Median vasopressor dose at randomization—µg/kg/min    
Norepinephrine 0.32 [0.2–0.52] 0.44 [0.22–0.84] 0.0004
Epinephrine 0.34 [0.16–0.57] 0.21 [0.14–0.5] 0.35
Mechanical ventilation—no (%) 317 [70] 253 [85] < 0.0001
PaO2/FiO2 ratio -mmHg 178 [122–267] 158 [90–245] 0.0098
Acute kidney injury—no (%) 175 [39] 169 [57] < 0.0001
  1. Patients in the “no mottling” group had no mottling during the first 24 h of septic shock. Patients in the mottling group had mottling for at least 2 h during the first 24 h of septic shock
  2. COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  3. Values are represented as median [interquartile range]. The target mean arterial pressure was 80 to 85 mmHg in the high-target group and 65 to 70 mmHg in the low-target group
  4. The Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II is based on 17 variables and scores range from 0 to 163, with a higher score indicating a more severe disease
  5. The score on the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) includes sub-scores ranging from 0 to 4 for each of five components (circulation, lungs, liver, kidneys and coagulation). Aggregated scores range from 0 to 20, with higher scores indicating more severe organ failure
  6. Others sources of infection included blood, soft tissue, skin, central venous system, bones and joints, cardiac system, reproductive organs and unknown sources
  7. Acute kidney injury was defined as a renal SOFA score of 2 or more (plasma creatinine level > 1.9 mg/dL (168 µmol/L) or urinary output, < 500 mL per day)