Smith LS, Zimmerman JJ, Martin TR. Mechanisms of acute respiratory distress syndrome in children and adults: a review and suggestions for future research. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2013;14:631–43.
Schouten LRA, Schultz MJ, van Kaam AH, Juffermans NP, Bos AP, Wösten-van Asperen RM. Association between maturation and aging and pulmonary responses in animal models of lung injury:a systematic review. Anesthesiology. 2015;123:389–408.
Xie X, Chen J, Wang X, Zhang F, Liu Y. Age- and gender-related difference of ACE2 expression in rat lung. Life Sci. 2006;78:2166–71.
Kuba K, Imai Y, Rao S, Jiang C, Penninger JM. Lessons from SARS: control of acute lung failure by the SARS receptor ACE2. J Mol Med (Berl). 2006;84:814–20.
Imai Y, Kuba K, Rao S, Huan Y, Guo F, Guan B, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 protects from severe acute lung failure. Nature. 2005;436:112–6.
Schouten LRA, Helmerhorst HJF, Wagenaar GTM, Haltenhof T, Lutter R, Roelofs JJ, et al. Age-dependent changes in the pulmonary renin-angiotensin system are associated with severity of lung injury in a model of acute lung injury in rats. Crit Care Med. 2016;44:e1226–35.
van Vught LA, Klein Klouwenberg PMC, Spitoni C, Scicluna BP, Wiewel MA, Horn J, et al. Incidence, risk factors, and attributable mortality of secondary infections in the intensive care unit after admission for sepsis. JAMA. 2016;315:1469–79.
Scicluna BP, Klein Klouwenberg PMC, van Vught LA, Wiewel MA, Ong DS, Zwinderman AH, et al. A molecular biomarker to diagnose community-acquired pneumonia on intensive care unit admission. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015;192:826–35.
Bernard GR, Artigas A, Brigham KL, Carlet J, Falke K, Hudson L, et al. The American-European Consensus Conference on ARDS. Definitions, mechanisms, relevant outcomes, and clinical trial coordination. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1994;149:818–24.
Ranieri VM, Rubenfeld GD, Thompson BT, Ferguson ND, Caldwell E, Fan E, et al. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: the Berlin Definition. JAMA. 2012;307:2526–33.
Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference Group. Pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome: consensus recommendations from the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2015;16:428–39.
De Luca D, van Kaam AH, Tingay DG, Courtney SE, Danhaive O, Carnielli VP, et al. The Montreux definition of neonatal ARDS: biological and clinical background behind the description of a new entity. Lancet Respir Med. 2017;5:657–66.
Ito Y, Betsuyaku T, Nagai K, Nasuhara Y, Nishimura M. Expression of pulmonary VEGF family declines with age and is further down-regulated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury. Exp Gerontol. 2005;40:315–23.
Ito Y, Betsuyaku T, Nasuhara Y, Nishimura M. Lipopolysaccharide-induced neutrophilic inflammation in the lungs differs with age. Exp Lung Res. 2007;33:375–84.
Smith LS, Gharib SA, Frevert CW, Martin TR. Effects of age on the synergistic interactions between lipopolysaccharide and mechanical ventilation in mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010;43:475–86.
Yerkovich ST, Chang AB, Carroll ML, Petsky HL, Scrivener G, Upham JW. Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) is present at high concentrations in the lungs of children and varies with age and the pattern of lung inflammation. Respirology. 2012;17:841–6.
Zou Y, Yoon S, Jung KJ, Kim CH, Son TG, Kim MS, et al. Upregulation of aortic adhesion molecules during aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006;61:232–44.
Nomellini V, Brubaker AL, Mahbub S, Palmer JL, Gomez CR, Kovacs EJ. Dysregulation of neutrophil CXCR18 and pulmonary endothelial icam-1 promotes age-related pulmonary inflammation. Aging Dis. 2012;3:234–47.
Richardson DK, Corcoran JD, Escobar GJ, Lee SK. SNAP-II and SNAPPE-II: simplified newborn illness severity and mortality risk scores. J Pediatr. 2001;138:92–100.
Slater A, Shann F, Pearson G, Paediatric Index of Mortality (PIM) Study Group. PIM2: a revised version of the Paediatric Index of Mortality. Intensive Care Med. 2003;29:278–85.
Zimmerman JE, Kramer AA, McNair DS, Malila FM, Shaffer VL. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) IV: hospital mortality assessment for today’s critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 2006;34:1297–310.
de Blic J, Midulla F, Barbato A, Clement A, Dab I, Eber E, et al. Bronchoalveolar lavage in children. ERS Task Force on bronchoalveolar lavage in children. Eur Respir J. 2000;15:217–31.
Haslam PL, Baughman RP. Report of the European Respiratory Society Task force: guidelines for measurement of acellular components and recommendation for standardization of BAL. Eur Respir J. 1999;14:245–8.
Matthay MA, Ware LB, Zimmerman GA. The acute respiratory distress syndrome. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:2731–40.
Martin TR, Ruzinski JT, Wilson CB, Skerrett SJ. Effects of endotoxin in the lungs of neonatal rats: age-dependent impairment of the inflammatory response. J Infect Dis. 1995;171:134–44.
Sordelli DO, Djafari M, García VE, Fontán PA, Döring G. Age-dependent pulmonary clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a mouse model: diminished migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Infect Immun. 1992;60:1724–7.
Kling KM, Lopez-Rodriguez E, Pfarrer C, Mühlfeld C, Brandenberger C. Aging exacerbates acute lung injury-induced changes of the air-blood barrier, lung function, and inflammation in the mouse. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017;312:L1–12.
Lawrence SM, Corriden R, Nizet V. Age-appropriate functions and dysfunctions of the neonatal neutrophil. Front Pediatr. 2017;5:1–15.
Zonneveld R, Martinelli R, Shapiro N, Kuijpers TW, Plötz FB, Carman CV. Soluble adhesion molecules as markers for sepsis and the potential pathophysiological discrepancy in neonates, children and adults. Crit Care. 2014;18:204.
Bonnema DD, Webb CS, Pennington WR, Stroud RE, Leonardi AE, Clark LL, et al. Effects of age on plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). J Card Fail. 2007;13:530–40.
Tayebjee MH, Lip GYH, Blann AD, Macfadyen RJ. Effects of age, gender, ethnicity, diurnal variation and exercise on circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9, and their inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 and -2. Thromb Res. 2005;115:205–10.
Winning S, Splettstoesser F, Fandrey J, Frede S. Acute hypoxia induces HIF-independent monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells through increased intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression: the role of hypoxic inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase activity for the induction of NF-kappa B. J Immunol. 2010;185:1786–93.
Khan A, Benthin C, Zeno B, Albertson TE, Boyd J, Christie JD, et al. A pilot clinical trial of recombinant human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care. 2017;21:1–9.
Prescott HC, Calfee CS, Thompson BT, Angus DC, Liu VX. Toward smarter lumping and smarter splitting: rethinking strategies for sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome clinical trial design. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016;194:147–55.
Supé S, Kohse F, Gembardt F, Kuebler WM, Walther T. Therapeutic time window for angiotensin-(1-7) in acute lung injury. Br J Pharmacol. 2016;173:1618–28.
Bos LD, Martin-Loeches I, Schultz MJ. ARDS: challenges in patient care and frontiers in research. Eur Respir Rev. 2018;27:170107.
Seok J, Warren HS, Cuenca AG, Mindrinos MN, Baker HV, Xu W, et al. Genomic responses in mouse models poorly mimic human inflammatory diseases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2013;110:3507–12.
Osuchowski MF, Remick DG, Lederer JA, Lang CH, Aasen AO, Aibiki M, et al. Abandon the mouse research ship? Not just yet! Shock. 2014;41:463–75.