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Table 2 Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients according to weaning group

From: Outcomes of mechanical ventilation according to WIND classification in pediatric patients

  Group 1
< 1 day
(n = 99)
Group 2
1–7 days
(n = 53)
Group 3
> 7 days
(n = 28)
p value
Baseline characteristics
Age in years 1.4 (0.4–5.3) 1.7 (0.3–4.0) 3.7 (0.9–10.8) 0.184
Male 63 (63.6) 23 (43.4) 16 (57.1) 0.057
PIM 3 (%), median (IQR) 2.4 (0.8–9.8) 3.2 (0.9–7.7) 4.6 (1.4–8.0) 0.795
Admission type     
 Postoperative admission 24 (24.2) 5 (9.4) 6 (21.4) 0.087
 Medical admission 75 (75.8) 48 (90.6) 22 (78.6)  
  Respiratory 47 (62.7) 34 (70.8) 17 (77.3)  
  Cardiovascular 14 (18.7) 6 (12.5) 1 (4.5)  
  Neurologic 10 (13.3) 5 (10.4) 2 (9.1)  
  Other 4 (5.3) 3 (6.3) 2 (9.1)  
Underlying disease     0.266
 Neurologic 23 (23.2) 13 (24.5) 4 (14.3)  
 Pulmonary 12 (12.1) 5 (9.4) 3 (10.7)  
 Cardiologic 21 (21.2) 15 (28.3) 4 (14.3)  
 Oncologic 8 (8.1) 11 (20.8) 8 (28.6)  
 Infectious 9 (9.1) 5 (9.4) 2 (7.1)  
 Other 26 (26.3) 4 (7.6) 7 (25)  
Weaning characteristics
Spontaneous breathing test 83 (83.8) 50 (94.3) 24 (85.7) 0.175
 PSV 78 (93.9) 45 (90.0) 20 (83.4)  
 CPAP 4 (4.8) 4 (8.0) 2 (8.3)  
 T-piece 1 (1.3) 1 (2.0) 2 (8.3)  
Post-extubation support 13 (13.1) 13 (24.5) 10 (35.7) 0.019
 Nasal CPAP 2 (2.0) 4 (7.5) 8 (28.6)  
 HFNC 11 (11.1) 9 (17.0) 2 (7.1)  
Intubation to the first SA, day 4 (2–7) 5 (3–9) 3 (2–7) 0.048
SA to successful weaning, days 0.3 (0–1) 2.6 (2–4) 17.2 (7–29) < 0.001
Total duration of MV, days 4 (3–7) 8 (5–14) 19.5 (13–38) < 0.001
Ventilator-free daysa 24 (21–25) 20 (15–23) 0 (0–12) < 0.001
Reintubation 3 (3.0) 17 (32.0) 26 (92.8) < 0.001
Time to reintubation, h 0.2 (0.1–1.8) 1.0 (0.6–6.4) 5.7 (0.9–37.9) 0.048
Clinical outcomes
Length of ICU stay, days 9 (5–14) 15 (8–23) 33.5 (18–46) < 0.001
ICU-free daya 18.9 (14–23) 13.0 (5–20) 1.1 (0–10) < 0.001
Length of hospital stay, days 18 (12–35) 31 (18–47) 49 (34–63) 0.010
Status at ICU discharge     
 Dead 0 0 5 (17.9) < 0.001
 Alive and weaned 99 (100) 53 (100) 14 (50.0)  
  Spontaneous breathing 92 (92.9) 43 (81.1) 9 (32.1)  
  Tracheostomy, no MV 7 (7.1) 10 (18.9) 5 (17.9)  
 Alive and not weaned     
  Tracheostomy with MV 0 0 9 (32.1)  
  1. Data are presented as n (%) or median (interquartile range)
  2. Group no-SA had never undergone separation attempt. Group 1 underwent the weaning process that ended within the 24 h following the first SA. Group 2 underwent a weaning process that ended between the second day and the seventh day following the first SA. Group 3 underwent a weaning process 7 days or more after the first SA
  3. SA separation attempt, IQR interquartile range, PIM 3 pediatric index of mortality 3, MV mechanical ventilation, PSV pressure support ventilation, CPAP continuous positive airway pressure, HFNC high flow nasal cannula, ICU intensive care unit
  4. aVentilator-free days/ICU-free days were calculated as the number of days without mechanical ventilation/ICU admission to day 28. Non-survivors were calculated as a value of 0