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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study cohort

From: Growth differentiation factor 15 and early prognosis after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

Characteristics All patients
(n = 62)
Favorable outcomea
(n = 30)
Unfavorable outcomea
(n = 32)
p value
Demographics
 Age, years 59 (52–71) 56 (48–60) 67 (57–74) 0.002
 Female sex 11 (17.7) 7 (23.3) 4 (12.5) 0.264
Clinical history
 Tobacco use 34 (54.8) 19 (63.3) 15 (46.9) 0.193
 Arterial hypertension 34 (54.8) 12 (40.0) 22 (68.8) 0.023
 Diabetes mellitus 15 (24.2) 2 (6.7) 13 (40.6) 0.002
 Prior MI 10 (16.1) 3 (10.0) 7 (21.9) 0.204
 CVD 6 (9.7) 2 (6.7) 4 (12.5) 0.438
Resuscitation variables
 Home setting arrest 23 (37.1) 5 (16.7) 18 (56.3) 0.001
 Witnessed arrest 61 (98.4) 30 (100) 31 (96.9) 0.329
 Bystander CPR 32 (51.6) 23 (76.7) 9 (28.1) < 0.001
 Collapse-CPR duration, min 4 (1–7) 3 (1–5) 5 (2–11) 0.004
 CPR-ROSC duration, min 22 (13–30) 19 (11–31) 23 (15–30) 0.280
 Non-shockable rhythm 10 (16.1) 1 (3.3) 9 (28.1) 0.008
 Number of defibrillations 4 (2–6) 3 (2–6) 4 (1–6) 0.419
 Epinephrine     0.004
 0 12 (19.4) 11 (36.7) 1 (3.1)  
 1–2 mg 19 (30.7) 7 (23.3) 12 (37.5)  
 ≥ 3 mg 31 (50.0) 12 (40.0) 19 (59.4)  
 Admission GCS 3 (3–5) 5 (3–7) 3 (3–3) < 0.001
 Admission creatinine, (µmol/L) 114.9 (97.2–139.7) 109.6 (91.0–132.6) 128.6 (109.6–141.9) 0.033
 Admission pH 7.22 (7.13–7.28) 7.25 (7.18–7.31) 7.19 (7.09–7.26) 0.065
 Admission lactate, mmol/Lb 4.4 (2.6–6.3) 3.4 (2.2–6.6) 5.2 (2.8–6.4) 0.337
 Admission GDF-15, ng/mL 12.4 (5.7–19.6) 7.6 (41.4–13.0) 17.1 (11.1–20.4) 0.004
ICCU treatment
 Mechanical ventilation 62 (100) 30 (100) 32 (100)
 Therapeutic hypothermia 37 (59.7) 20 (66.7) 17 (53.1) 0.277
 Coronary angiography 52 (83.9) 28 (93.3) 24 (75.0) 0.050
Cardiac arrest etiology
 STEMI 38 (61.3) 20 (66.7) 18 (56.3) 0.400
 NSTEMI 13 (21.0) 4 (13.3) 9 (28.1) 0.153
 Vasospastic angina 4 (6.45) 3 (10.0) 1 (3.1) 0.271
 Chronic CAD 3 (4.8) 0 3 (9.4) 0.086
 Cardiomyopathy 2 (3.2) 2 (6.7) 0 0.138
 Acute myocarditis 1 (1.6) 1 (3.3) 0 0.298
 Others 1 (1.6) 0 1 (3.1) 0.329
  1. Data are presented as the number of patients (%) or the median (IQR)
  2. MI myocardial infarction, CVD cerebrovascular disease, CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, ROSC return of spontaneous circulation, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, ICCU intensive cardiac care unit, STEMI ST-elevation myocardial infarction, NSTEMI non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, CAD coronary artery disease
  3. aOutcome favorability was based on the Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) score: scores 1–2 = favorable; scores 3–5 = unfavorable
  4. bEstimation in 55 patients