Laver S, Farrow C, Turner D, Nolan J. Mode of death after admission to an intensive care unit following cardiac arrest. Intensive Care Med. 2004;30:2126–8.
Lemiale V, Dumas F, Mongardon N, Giovanetti O, Charpentier J, Chiche JD, et al. Intensive care unit mortality after cardiac arrest: the relative contribution of shock and brain injury in a large cohort. Intensive Care Med. 2013;39:1972–80.
Dragancea I, Rundgren M, Englund E, Friberg H, Cronberg T. The influence of induced hypothermia and delayed prognostication on the mode of death after cardiac arrest. Resuscitation. 2013;84:337–42.
Sandroni C, Cariou A, Cavallaro F, Cronberg T, Friberg H, Hoedemaekers C, et al. Prognostication in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest: an advisory statement from the European Resuscitation Council and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. Resuscitation. 2014;85:1779–89.
Wollert KC, Kempf T, Wallentin L. Growth differentiation factor 15 as a biomarker in cardiovascular disease. Clin Chem. 2017;63:140–51.
Garcia-Garcia C, Rueda F, Lupon J, Oliveras T, Labata C, Ferrer M, et al. Growth differentiation factor-15 is a predictive biomarker in primary ventricular fibrillation: the RUTI-STEMI-PVF study. Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1177/2048872618797599.
Soar J, Nolan JP, Böttiger BW, Perkins GD, Lott C, Carli P, et al. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015: section 3. Adult advanced life support. Resuscitation. 2015;95:100–47.
Nolan JP, Soar J, Cariou A, Cronberg T, Moulaert VR, Deakin CD, et al. European Resuscitation Council and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine Guidelines for Post-resuscitation Care 2015: section 5 of the European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015. Resuscitation. 2015;95:202–22.
Kempf T, Horn-Wichmann R, Brabant G, Peter T, Allhoff T, Klein G, et al. Circulating concentrations of growth-differentiation factor 15 in apparently healthy elderly individuals and patients with chronic heart failure as assessed by a new immunoradiometric sandwich assay. Clin Chem. 2007;53:284–91.
Jennett B, Bond M. Assessment of outcome after severe brain damage. Lancet. 1975;1:480–4.
Maupain C, Bougouin W, Lamhaut L, Deye N, Diehl JL, Geri G, et al. The CAHP (Cardiac Arrest Hospital Prognosis) score: a tool for risk stratification after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Eur Heart J. 2016;37:3222–8.
Gul SS, Huesgen KW, Wang KK, Mark K, Tyndall JA. Prognostic utility of neuroinjury biomarkers in post out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patient management. Med Hypotheses. 2017;105:34–47.
Rundgren M, Karlsson T, Nielsen N, Cronberg T, Johnsson P, Friberg H. Neuron specific enolase and S-100B as predictors of outcome after cardiac arrest and induced hypothermia. Resuscitation. 2009;80:784–9.
Stammet P, Collignon O, Hassager C, Wise MP, Hovdenes J, Åneman A, et al. Neuron-specific enolase as a predictor of death or poor neurological outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and targeted temperature management at 33 °C and 36 °C. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;65:2104–14.
Choi S, Park K, Ryu S, Kang T, Kim H, Cho S, et al. Use of S-100B, NSE, CRP and ESR to predict neurological outcomes in patients with return of spontaneous circulation and treated with hypothermia. Emerg Med J. 2016;33:690–5.
Stammet P, Dankiewicz J, Nielsen N, Fays F, Collignon O, Hassager C, et al. Protein S100 as outcome predictor after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and targeted temperature management at 33 °C and 36 °C. Crit Care. 2017;21:153.
Hasslacher J, Lehner GF, Harler U, Beer R, Ulmer H, Kirchmair R, et al. Secretoneurin as a marker for hypoxic brain injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Intensive Care Med. 2014;40:1518–27.
Larsson IM, Wallin E, Kristofferzon ML, Niessner M, Zetterberg H, Rubertsson S. Post-cardiac arrest serum levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein for predicting neurological outcome. Resuscitation. 2014;85:1654–61.
Mattsson N, Zetterberg H, Nielsen N, Blennow K, Dankiewicz J, Friberg H, et al. Serum tau and neurological outcome in cardiac arrest. Ann Neurol. 2017;5:665–75.
Moseby-Knappe M, Mattsson N, Nielsen N, Zetterberg H, Blennow K, Dankiewicz J, et al. Serum neurofilament light chain for prognosis of outcome after cardiac arrest. JAMA Neurol. 2019;76:64–71.
Strelau J, Sullivan A, Böttner M, Lingor P, Falkenstein E, Suter-Crazzolara C, et al. Growth/differentiation factor-15/macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 is a novel trophic factor for midbrain dopaminergic neurons in vivo. J Neurosci. 2000;20:8597–603.
Kempf T, Björklund E, Olofsson S, Lindahl B, Allhoff T, Peter T, et al. Growth-differentiation factor-15 improves risk stratification in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J. 2007;28:2858–65.
Khan SQ, Ng K, Dhillon O, Kelly D, Quinn P, Squire IB, et al. Growth differentiation factor-15 as a prognostic marker in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J. 2009;30:1057–65.
Fuernau G, Poenisch C, Eitel I, de Waha S, Desch S, Schuler G, et al. Growth-differentiation factor 15 and osteoprotegerin in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock: a biomarker substudy of the IABP-SHOCK II-trial. Eur J Heart Fail. 2014;16:880–7.
Lankeit M, Kempf T, Dellas C, Cuny M, Tapken H, Peter T, et al. Growth differentiation factor-15 for prognostic assessment of patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;177:1018–25.
Clark BJ, Bull TM, Benson AB, Stream AR, Macht M, Gaydos J, et al. Growth differentiation factor-15 and prognosis in acute respiratory distress syndrome: a retrospective cohort study. Crit Care. 2013;17:R92.
Buendgens L, Yagmur E, Bruensing J, Herbers U, Baeck C, Trautwein C, et al. Growth differentiation factor-15 is a predictor of mortality in critically ill patients with sepsis. Dis Markers. 2017;2017:5271203.
Schindowski K, von Bohlen und Halbach O, Strelau J, Ridder DA, Herrmann O, Schober A, et al. Regulation of GDF-15, a distant TGF-β superfamily member, in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia. Cell Tissue Res. 2011;343:399–409.
Schober A, Böttner M, Strelau J, Kinscherf R, Bonaterra GA, Barth M, et al. Expression of growth differentiation factor-15/macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (GDF-15/MIC-1) in the perinatal, adult, and injured rat brain. J Comp Neurol. 2001;439:32–45.
Worthmann H, Kempf T, Widera C, Tryc AB, Goldbecker A, Ma YT, et al. Growth differentiation factor 15 plasma levels and outcome after ischemic stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2011;32:72–8.
Gröschel K, Schnaudigel S, Edelmann F, Niehaus CF, Weber-Krüger M, Haase B, et al. Growth-differentiation factor-15 and functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke. J Neurol. 2012;259:1574–9.
Neumar RW, Nolan JP, Adrie C, Aibiki M, Berg RA, Böttiger BW, et al. Post-cardiac arrest syndrome: epidemiology, pathophysiology, treatment, and prognostication. A consensus statement from the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (American Heart Association, Australian and New Zealand Council on Resuscitation, European Resuscitation Council, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, InterAmerican Heart Foundation, Resuscitation Council of Asia, and the Resuscitation Council of Southern Africa); the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee; the Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Perioperative, and Critical Care; the Council on Clinical Cardiology; and the Stroke Council. Circulation. 2008;118:2452–83.
Annborn M, Dankiewicz J, Erlinge D, Hertel S, Rundgren M, Smith JG, et al. Procalcitonin after cardiac arrest—an indicator of severity of illness, ischemia–reperfusion injury and outcome. Resuscitation. 2013;84:782–7.
Roberts BW, Kilgannon JH, Chansky ME, Mittal N, Wooden J, Parrillo JE, et al. Multiple organ dysfunction after return of spontaneous circulation in postcardiac arrest syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2013;41:1492–501.
Ristagno G, Latini R, Plebani M, Zaninotto M, Vaahersalo J, Masson S, et al. Copeptin levels are associated with organ dysfunction and death in the intensive care unit after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Crit Care. 2015;19:132.
Broessner G, Hasslacher J, Beer R, Lackner P, Lehner GF, Harler U, et al. Outcome prediction and temperature dependency of MR-proANP and Copeptin in comatose resuscitated patients. Resuscitation. 2015;89:75–80.
Vaahersalo J, Skrifvars MB, Pulkki K, Stridsberg M, Røsjø H, Hovilehto S, et al. Admission interleukin-6 is associated with post resuscitation organ dysfunction and predicts long-term neurological outcome after out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation. Resuscitation. 2014;85:1573–9.
Bro-Jeppesen J, Kjaergaard J, Stammet P, Wise MP, Hovdenes J, Åneman A, et al. Predictive value of interleukin-6 in post-cardiac arrest patients treated with targeted temperature management at 33 °C or 36 °C. Resuscitation. 2016;98:1–8.
Isenschmid C, Kalt J, Gamp M, Tondorf T, Becker C, Tisljar K, et al. Routine blood markers from different biological pathways improve early risk stratification in cardiac arrest patients: results from the prospective, observational COMMUNICATE study. Resuscitation. 2018;130:138–45.
Aschauer S, Dorffner G, Sterz F, Erdogmus A, Laggner A. A prediction tool for initial out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors. Resuscitation. 2014;85:1225–31.