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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and outcomes

From: Association between delay in intensive care unit admission and the host response in patients with community-acquired pneumonia

  Direct ICU admission Delayed ICU admission P value
Patients 387 143  
Demographics
 Age, years, median [IQR] 62 [49, 72] 64 [51, 73] .47
 Gender male, n (%) 252 (65.1) 83 (58.0) .26
 White race, n (%) 344 (88.9) 123 (86.0) .45
 Readmissiona, n (%) 11 (2.8) 3 (2.1) .87
Chronic comorbidity, n (%)
 None 110 (28.4) 35 (24.5) .43
 Immunocompromised state 82 (21.2) 50 (35.0) .002
 Cardiovascular insufficiency 110 (28.4) 32 (22.4) .20
 Malignancy 52 (13.4) 33 (23.1) .011
 Renal insufficiency 41 (10.6) 19 (13.3) .48
 Respiratory insufficiency 114 (29.5) 35 (24.5) .31
 COPD 82 (21.2) 26 (18.2) .52
 Diabetes mellitus 86 (22.2) 24 (16.8) .21
 Charlson comorbidity index 4 [2, 6] 4 [3, 6] .18
Vital signs on admission, median [IQR]
 Temperature 38 [37, 38] 38 [37, 39] .14
 PaO2/FiO2 ratio 114 [57, 477] 102 [50, 351] .21
 PEEP during first 24 h, cm H2O 24 [7, 25] 24 [6, 24] .47
Severity of disease on ICU admission
 APACHE IV Score, median [IQR] 75 [59, 98] 75 [60, 92] .75
 SOFA total, median [IQR] 6 [4, 8] 6 [4, 8] .69
 Mechanical ventilation, n (%) 303 (78.3) 101 (70.6) .08
 Shock, n (%) 179 (46.6) 48 (33.6) .010
 Acute kidney injury, n (%) 121 (31.3) 36 (25.2) .21
 Acute respiratory distress syndrome, n (%) 95 (24.5) 36 (25.2) .97
 Acute myocardial infarction, n (%) 14 (3.6) 3 (2.1) .55
Causative pathogens    .08
 Gram-positive bacteria 68 (17.6) 17 (11.9)  
 Gram-negative bacteria 57 (14.7) 24 (16.8)  
 Atypical bacteria 1 (0.3) 1 (0.7)  
 Virus 16 (4.1) 12 (8.4)  
 Fungi 11 (2.8) 10 (7.0)  
 Other pathogens 1 (0.3) 1 (0.7)  
 Multiple pathogens 42 (10.9) 11 (7.7)  
 Unknown 191 (49.4) 67 (46.9)  
Outcome
 Length of ICU stay, days, median [IQR] 5 [3, 9] 5 [2, 9] .79
 Length of hospital stay, days, median [IQR] 12 [16, 24] 14 [7, 24] .21
MV characteristics
 Duration of initial MV, days, median [IQR] 2 [1, 6] 2 [1, 6] .34
 Recurrence of MV, n (%) 10 (2.6) 10 (7.0) .035
 MV-free daysb, median [IQR] 22 [5, 26] 21 [5, 25] .39
ICU-acquired complications, n (%)
 None 327 (84.5) 122 (85.3) .92
 Acute kidney injury 35 (9.0) 11 (7.7) .75
 Acute respiratory distress syndrome 22 (5.7) 7 (4.9) .89
 Infection 25 (6.5) 11 (7.7) .76
Mortalityc, n (%)
 ICU 71 (18.9) 27 (19.3)  > .99
 Hospital 101 (26.9) 46 (32.9) .22
 30 days 107 (28.5) 44 (31.4) .58
 60 days 123 (32.7) 53 (37.9) .32
 90 days 129 (34.3) 61 (43.6) .07
 1 year 158 (42.0) 71 (50.7) .10
  1. APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ED emergency department, FiO2 fraction of inspired oxygen, ICU intensive care unit, IQR interquartile range, MV mechanical ventilation, PaO2 partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood gas analysis, PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment
  2. aReadmissions > 30 days after hospital discharge
  3. bDays alive and free from MV on day 28 of ICU stay
  4. cMortality was calculated using the first ICU-admission for each patient; readmissions were not included in this analysis