Angus DC, van der Poll T. Severe sepsis and septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2013;369(21):2063.
Torres A, Cilloniz C, Niederman MS, Menendez R, Chalmers JD, Wunderink RG, et al. Pneumonia. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2021;7(1):25.
Laporte L, Hermetet C, Jouan Y, Gaborit C, Rouve E, Shea KM, et al. Ten-year trends in intensive care admissions for respiratory infections in the elderly. Ann Intensiv Care. 2018;8(1):84.
Torres A, Chalmers JD, Dela Cruz CS, Dominedo C, Kollef M, Martin-Loeches I, et al. Challenges in severe community-acquired pneumonia: a point-of-view review. Intensiv Care Med. 2019;45(2):159–71.
Jain S, Self WH, Wunderink RG, Fakhran S, Balk R, Bramley AM, et al. Community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among US adults. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(5):415–27.
Cilloniz C, Dominedo C, Garcia-Vidal C, Torres A. Community-acquired pneumonia as an emergency condition. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2018;24(6):531–9.
Montull B, Menendez R, Torres A, Reyes S, Mendez R, Zalacain R, et al. Predictors of severe sepsis among patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(1):e0145929.
Ewig S, de Roux A, Bauer T, Garcia E, Mensa J, Niederman M, et al. Validation of predictive rules and indices of severity for community acquired pneumonia. Thorax. 2004;59(5):421–7.
Phua J, Ngerng WJ, Lim TK. The impact of a delay in intensive care unit admission for community-acquired pneumonia. Eur Respir J. 2010;36(4):826–33.
Renaud B, Santin A, Coma E, Camus N, Van Pelt D, Hayon J, et al. Association between timing of intensive care unit admission and outcomes for emergency department patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Crit Care Med. 2009;37(11):2867–74.
Restrepo MI, Mortensen EM, Rello J, Brody J, Anzueto A. Late admission to the ICU in patients with community-acquired pneumonia is associated with higher mortality. Chest. 2010;137(3):552–7.
Klein Klouwenberg PM, Ong DS, Bos LD, de Beer FM, van Hooijdonk RT, Huson MA, et al. Interobserver agreement of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for classifying infections in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 2013;41(10):2373–8.
van Vught LA, Klein Klouwenberg PM, Spitoni C, Scicluna BP, Wiewel MA, Horn J, et al. Incidence, risk factors, and attributable mortality of secondary infections in the intensive care unit after admission for sepsis. JAMA. 2016;315(14):1469–79.
van Vught LA, Scicluna BP, Wiewel MA, Hoogendijk AJ, Klein Klouwenberg PM, Franitza M, et al. Comparative analysis of the host response to community-acquired and hospital-acquired pneumonia in critically ill patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016;194(11):1366–74.
Charlson ME, Pompei P, Ales KL, MacKenzie CR. A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation. J Chronic Dis. 1987;40(5):373–83.
Bernard GR, Artigas A, Brigham KL, Carlet J, Falke K, Hudson L, et al. The American-European Consensus Conference on ARDS Definitions, mechanisms, relevant outcomes, and clinical trial coordination. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994; 149(3):818–24.
Bellomo R, Ronco C, Kellum JA, Mehta RL, Palevsky P. Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative w. Acute renal failure—definition, outcome measures, animal models, fluid therapy and information technology needs: the Second International Consensus Conference of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) Group. Crit Care. 2004;8(4):R204–12.
Gautier L, Cope L, Bolstad BM, Irizarry RA. affy–analysis of Affymetrix GeneChip data at the probe level. Bioinformatics. 2004;20(3):307–15.
Bourgon R, Gentleman R, Huber W. Independent filtering increases detection power for high-throughput experiments. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107(21):9546–51.
Johnson WE, Li C, Rabinovic A. Adjusting batch effects in microarray expression data using empirical Bayes methods. Biostatistics. 2007;8(1):118–27.
Leek JT, Storey JD. Capturing heterogeneity in gene expression studies by surrogate variable analysis. PLoS Genet. 2007;3(9):1724–35.
van Lieshout MH, Scicluna BP, Florquin S, van der Poll T. NLRP3 and ASC differentially affect the lung transcriptome during pneumococcal pneumonia. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2014;50(4):699–712.
Quinton LJ, Walkey AJ, Mizgerd JP. Integrative physiology of pneumonia. Physiol Rev. 2018;98(3):1417–64.
van der Poll T, van de Veerdonk FL, Scicluna BP, Netea MG. The immunopathology of sepsis and potential therapeutic targets. Nat Rev Immunol. 2017;17(7):407–20.
Christaki E, Anyfanti P, Opal SM. Immunomodulatory therapy for sepsis: an update. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2011;9(11):1013–33.
Opal SM, Dellinger RP, Vincent JL, Masur H, Angus DC. The next generation of sepsis clinical trial designs: what is next after the demise of recombinant human activated protein C?*. Crit Care Med. 2014;42(7):1714–21.
Intas G, Stergiannis P, Chalari E, Tsoumakas K, Fildissis G. The impact of ED boarding time severity of illness, and discharge destination on outcomes of critically ill ED patients. Adv Emerg Nurs J 2012; 34(2):164–9.
Stelfox HT, Hemmelgarn BR, Bagshaw SM, Gao S, Doig CJ, Nijssen-Jordan C, et al. Intensive care unit bed availability and outcomes for hospitalized patients with sudden clinical deterioration. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172(6):467–74.
Cardoso LT, Grion CM, Matsuo T, Anami EH, Kauss IA, Seko L, et al. Impact of delayed admission to intensive care units on mortality of critically ill patients: a cohort study. Crit Care. 2011;15(1):R28.
Chalfin DB, Trzeciak S, Likourezos A, Baumann BM, Dellinger RP, group D-Es. Impact of delayed transfer of critically ill patients from the emergency department to the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2007;35(6):1477–83.
Molina JA, Seow E, Heng BH, Chong WF, Ho B. Outcomes of direct and indirect medical intensive care unit admissions from the emergency department of an acute care hospital: a retrospective cohort study. BMJ Open. 2014;4(11):e005553.
Mendez R, Menendez R, Cilloniz C, Amara-Elori I, Amaro R, Gonzalez P, et al. Initial inflammatory profile in community-acquired pneumonia depends on time since onset of symptoms. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018;198(3):370–8.
Wunderink RG, Laterre PF, Francois B, Perrotin D, Artigas A, Vidal LO, et al. Recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor in severe community-acquired pneumonia: a randomized trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183(11):1561–8.
Chang PY, Tsao SM, Chang JH, Chien MH, Hung WY, Huang YW, et al. Plasma levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 as a biomarker for disease severity of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Chim Acta. 2016;463:174–80.
Fang Y, Li C, Shao R, Yu H, Zhang Q. The role of biomarkers of endothelial activation in predicting morbidity and mortality in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock in intensive care: a prospective observational study. Thromb Res. 2018;171:149–54.
Ricciuto DR, dos Santos CC, Hawkes M, Toltl LJ, Conroy AL, Rajwans N, et al. Angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 as clinically informative prognostic biomarkers of morbidity and mortality in severe sepsis. Crit Care Med. 2011;39(4):702–10.
Bui TM, Wiesolek HL, Sumagin R. ICAM-1: a master regulator of cellular responses in inflammation, injury resolution, and tumorigenesis. J Leukoc Biol. 2020;108(3):787–99.
Venet F, Monneret G. Advances in the understanding and treatment of sepsis-induced immunosuppression. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2018;14(2):121–37.
Stanski NL, Wong HR. Prognostic and predictive enrichment in sepsis. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2020;16(1):20–31.
Souza-Fernandes AB, Pelosi P, Rocco PR. Bench-to-bedside review: the role of glycosaminoglycans in respiratory disease. Crit Care. 2006;10(6):237.
Lucas A, Yasa J, Lucas M. Regeneration and repair in the healing lung. Clin Transl Immunol. 2020;9(7):e1152.
Wang Z, Li W, Guo Q, Wang Y, Ma L, Zhang X. Insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling in lung development and inflammatory lung diseases. Biomed Res Int. 2018;2018:6057589.
Garnier M, Gibelin A, Mailleux AA, Lecon V, Hurtado-Nedelec M, Laschet J, et al. Macrophage polarization favors epithelial repair during acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2018;46(7):e692–701.
Piednoir P, Quesnel C, Nardelli L, Lecon V, Bouadma L, Lasocki S, et al. Alveolar fluid in acute respiratory distress syndrome promotes fibroblast migration: role of platelet-derived growth factor pathway*. Crit Care Med. 2012;40(7):2041–9.
Finigan JH, Downey GP, Kern JA. Human epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in acute lung injury. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2012;47(4):395–404.