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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the 55 study participants

From: Neurologic outcome of VZV encephalitis one year after ICU admission: a multicenter cohort study

Variable Patients n = 55
Age, years, median [IQR] 53 [36–66]
Male sex, n (%) 29 (53%)
Underlying immunosuppression, n (%) 43 (78%)
 Steroids 20 (36%)
 Solid organ transplant 12 (22%)
 HIV 11 (20%)
 Hematological malignancy 11 (20%)
 Solid neoplasm 3 (5%)
 Other causes of immunosuppressiona 8 (15%)
Reason for ICU admission, n (%)
 Confusion 22 (40%)
 Coma 20 (36%)
 Status epilepticus 10 (18%)
 Neurologic deficits 3 (5%)
VZV-related organ involvement, n (%)
 Skin rash 37 (67%)
 Pneumonia 11 (20%)
 Hepatitis 11 (20%)
 Neurological symptoms 55 (100%)
  Confusion 27 (49%)
  Coma 20 (36%)
  Seizures 18 (33%)
  Headaches 18 (33%)
  Neurologic deficits 17 (31%)
  Ataxia 3 (5%)
Time from the onset of neurological symptoms to ICU admission, days, median [IQR] 1 [0–3]
Clinical parameters at ICU admission, median [IQR]
 Temperature 38.5 [37.3–39.3]
 SOFA 6 [4–9]
 GCS 12 [7–14]
Cerebrospinal fluid examination, median [IQR] 55 (100%)
 Leukocytes, /mm3 68 [13–129]
 Lymphocytes, /mm3 70 [27–95]
 Neutrophils, /mm3 25 [3–40]
 Protein, g/L 1.37 [0.77–3.67]
 Glucose, mmol/L 3.8 [2.6–5.0]
 Positive VZV PCR, n (%) 55 (100%)
Brain CT-scan, n (%) 33 (60%)
 Abnormal findings 10 (30%)
Brain MRI, n (%) 30 (55%)
 Abnormal findings 21 (70%)
EEG, n (%) 24 (44%)
 Abnormal findings 18 (75%)
  1. aOther causes of immunosuppression: connective tissue disorder treated with immunosuppressive drugs (n = 4), common variable immunodeficiency (n = 2), pregnancy (n = 2), cirrhosis (n = 2)
  2. CT, computed tomography; EEG, electroencephalogram; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; ICU, intensive care unit; IQR, interquartile; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; PCR, polymerase in chain reaction; VZV, varicella-zoster virus