Gattinoni L, Chiumello D, Caironi P, Busana M, Romitti F, Brazzi L, et al. COVID-19 pneumonia: different respiratory treatments for different phenotypes? Intensive Care Med. 2020;46(6):1099–102.
Fazzini B, Fowler AJ, Zolfaghari P. Effectiveness of prone position in spontaneously breathing patients with COVID-19: a prospective cohort study. J Intensive Care Soc. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1177/1751143721996542.
Komorowski M, Aberegg SK. Using applied lung physiology to understand COVID-19 patterns. Br J Anaesthesia. 2020;125(3):250–3.
Kapitan KS. Ventilatory failure. Can you sustain what you need? Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2013;10:396–914.
Freedman S. Sustained maximum voluntary ventilation. Respir Physiol. 1970;8:230–44.
Gattinoni L, Marini JJ, Busana M, Chiumello D, Camporota L. Spontaneous breathing, transpulmonary pressure and mathematical trickery. Ann Intensive Care. 2020;10(1):88.
Tobin MJ, Laghi F, Jubran A. P-SILI is not justification for intubation of COVID-19 patients. Ann Intensive Care. 2020;10(1):105.
Tobin MJ, Jubran A, Laghi F. P-SILI as justification for intubation in COVID-19: readers as arbiters. Ann Intensive Care. 2020;10(1):156.
Cruces P, Retamal J, Hurtado DE, Erranz B, Iturrieta P, Gonzalez C, et al. A physiological approach to understand the role of respiratory effort in the progression of lung injury in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Crit Care. 2020;24(1):494.
Gattinoni L, Marini JJ, Camporota L. The respiratory drive: an overlooked tile of COVID-19 pathophysiology. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020;202(8):1079–80.
Tobin MJ, Jubran A, Laghi F. Respiratory drive measurements do not signify conjectural patient self-inflicted lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2021;203(1):142–3.
Mascheroni D, Kolobow T, Fumagalli R, Moretti MP, Chen V, Buckhold D. Acute respiratory failure following pharmacologically induced hyperventilation: an experimental animal study. Intensive Care Med. 1988;15(1):8–14.
Dunnill MS. The pathology of asthma, with special reference to changes in the bronchial mucosa. J Clin Pathol. 1960;13:27–33.
Stalcup SA, Mellins RB. Mechanical forces producing pulmonary edema in acute asthma. N Engl J Med. 1977;297(11):592–6.
Yoshida T, Uchiyama A, Matsuura N, Mashimo T, Fujino Y. The comparison of spontaneous breathing and muscle paralysis in two different severities of experimental lung injury. Crit Care Med. 2013;41:536–45.
Brochard L, Slutsky A, Pesenti A. Mechanical ventilation to minimize progression of lung injury in acute respiratory failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017;195(4):438–42.
Tonelli R, Fantini R, Tabbi L, Castaniere I, Pisani L, Pellegrino MR, et al. Early inspiratory effort assessment by esophageal manometry predicts noninvasive ventilation outcome in de novo respiratory failure. A pilot study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020;202(4):558–67.
Yoshida T. The dark side of spontaneous breathing during noninvasive ventilation. From hypothesis to theory. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020;202:482–4.
Kumar JA. Continued vigorous inspiratory effort as a predictor of noninvasive ventilation failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020;202(12):1738–9.
Esnault P, Cardinale M, Hraiech S, Goutorbe P, Baumstrack K, Prud’homme E, et al. High respiratory drive and excessive respiratory efforts predict relapse of respiratory failure in critically Ill patients with COVID-19. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020;202(8):1173–8.
Alharthy A, Bakirova GH, Bakheet H, Balhamar A, Brindley PG, Alqahtani SA, et al. COVID-19 with spontaneous pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and subcutaneous emphysema in the intensive care unit: Two case reports. J Infect Public Health. 2020;14(3):290–2.
Rafiee MJ, Babaki Fard F, Samimi K, Rasti H, Pressacco J. Spontaneous pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum as a rare complication of COVID-19 pneumonia: Report of 6 cases. Radiol Case Rep. 2021;16(3):687–92.
Cressoni M, et al. Mechanical power and development of ventilator-induced lung injury. Anesthesiology. 2016;124(5):1100–8.
McCahon R, Columb M, Mahajan R, Hardman J. Validation and application of a high-fidelity, computational model of acute respiratory distress syndrome to the examination of the indices of oxygenation at constant lung-state. Br J Anaesth. 2008;101(3):358–65.
Das A, Cole O, Chikhani M, Wang W, et al. Evaluation of lung recruitment maneuvers in acute respiratory distress syndrome using computer simulation. Crit Care. 2015;19(1):8.
Chikhani M, Das A, Haque M, Wang W, Bates DG, Hardman JG. High PEEP in acute respiratory distress syndrome: quantitative evaluation between improved arterial oxygenation and decreased oxygen delivery. Br J Anaesth. 2016;117(5):650–8.
Das A, Haque M, Chikhani M, Cole O, Wang W, Hardman JG, et al. Hemodynamic effects of lung recruitment maneuvers in acute respiratory distress syndrome. BMC Pulm Med. 2017;17(1):34.
Das A, Camporota L, Hardman JG, Bates DG. What links ventilator driving pressure with survival in the acute respiratory distress syndrome? A computational study. Respir Res. 2019;20(1):29.
Saffaran S, Das A, Hardman JG, Yehya N, Bates DG. High-fidelity computational simulation to refine strategies for lung-protective ventilation in paediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. Intensive Care Med. 2019;45(7):1055–7.
Saffaran S, Das A, Laffey JG, Hardman JG, Yehya N, Bates DG. Utility of driving pressure and mechanical power to guide protective ventilator settings in two cohorts of adult and pediatric patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: a computational investigation. Crit Care Med. 2020;48(7):1001–8.
Scott TE, Haque M, Das A, Cliff I, Bates DG, Hardman JG. Efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure in casualties suffering from primary blast lung injury: a modeling study. Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2019;2019:4965–8.
Das A, Saffaran S, Chikhani M, Scott TE, Laviola M, Yehya N, et al. In silico modeling of coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome: pathophysiologic insights and potential management implications. Crit Care Explor. 2020;2(9):e0202.
Gattinoni L, Coppola S, Cressoni M, Busana M, Rossi S, Chiumello D. COVID-19 does not lead to a “Typical” acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020;201(10):1299–300.
Marini JJ, Gattinoni L. Management of COVID-19 respiratory distress. JAMA. 2020;323(22):2329–30.
Roesthuis L, van den Berg M, van der Hoeven H. Advanced respiratory monitoring in COVID-19 patients: use less PEEP! Crit Care. 2020;24(1):230.
Tsolaki V, Siempos I, Magira E, Kokkoris S, Zakynthinos GE, Zakynthinos S. PEEP levels in COVID-19 pneumonia. Crit Care. 2020;24(1):303.
Bonny V, Janiak V, Spadaro S, Pinna A, Demoule A, Dres M. Effect of PEEP decremental on respiratory mechanics, gasses exchanges, pulmonary regional ventilation, and hemodynamics in patients with SARS-Cov-2-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care. 2020;24(1):596.
Chiumello D, Busana M, Coppola S, Romitti F, Formenti P, Bonifazi M, et al. Physiological and quantitative CT-scan characterization of COVID-19 and typical ARDS: a matched cohort study. Intensive Care Med. 2020;46(12):2187–96.
Lang M, Som A, Mendoza DP, Flores EJ, Reid N, Carey D, et al. Hypoxaemia related to COVID-19: vascular and perfusion abnormalities on dual-energy CT. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020;20(12):1365–6.
Albarello F, Pianura E, Di Stefano F, Cristofaro M, Petrone A, Marchioni L, et al. 2019-novel Coronavirus severe adult respiratory distress syndrome in two cases in Italy: an uncommon radiological presentation. Int J Infect Dis. 2020;93:192–7.
Helms J, Tacquard C, Severac F, Leonard-Lorant I, Ohana M, Delabranche X, et al. High risk of thrombosis in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection: a multicenter prospective cohort study. Intensive Care Med. 2020;46(6):1089–98.
Menter T, Haslbauer JD, Nienhold R, Savic S, Hopfer H, Deigendesch N, et al. Postmortem examination of COVID-19 patients reveals diffuse alveolar damage with severe capillary congestion and variegated findings in lungs and other organs suggesting vascular dysfunction. Histopathology. 2020;77(2):198–209.
Mecklenburgh JS, Mapleson WW. Ventilatory assistance and respiratory muscle activity. 2: Simulation with an adaptive active (“aa” or “a-squared”) model lung. Br J Anaesth. 1998;80(4):434–9.
Albanese A, Cheng L, Ursino M, Chbat NW. An integrated mathematical model of the human cardiopulmonary system. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2016;310(7):H899-921.
Comroe JH. Mechanical factors in breathing. In: Physiology of respiration. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers, 1977, chapt. 10, p. 91–141.
Haudebourg A-F, Perier F, Tuffet S, de Prost N, Razazi K, Mekontso Dessap A, Carteaux G. Respiratory mechanics of COVID-19- versus non-COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020;202(2):287–90.
Eikermann M, Vidal Melo M. Therapeutic range of spontaneous breathing during mechanical ventilation. Anesthesiology. 2014;120:536–9.
Protti A, Votta E, Gattinoni L. Which is the most important strain in the pathogenesis of ventilator-induced lung injury. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2014;20:33–8.
Harik-Khan RI, Wise RA, Fozard JL. Determinants of maximal inspiratory pressure. The Baltimore longitudinal study of aging. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998;158(5 Pt 1):1459–64.
Gattinoni L. Ventilation-induced lung injury exists in spontaneously breathing patients with acute respiratory failure: we are not sure. Intensive Care Med. 2017;43(2):256–8.
Grieco DL, Menga LS, Eleuteri D, Antonelli M. Patient self-inflicted lung injury: implications for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and ARDS patients on non-invasive support. Minerva Anestesiol. 2019;85(9):1014–23.
Arnal JM, Chatburn R. Paying attention to patient self-inflicted lung injury. Minerva Anestesiol. 2019;85(9):940–2.
Yoshida T, Roldan R, Beraldo MA, Torsani V, Gomes S, De Santis RR, et al. Spontaneous effort during mechanical ventilation: maximal injury with less positive end-expiratory pressure. Crit Care Med. 2016;44(8):e678–88.
Bhat S, Patibandla R. Metal fatigue and basic theoretical models: a review. Alloy steel-properties and use; 2011, p. 22.
Neto AS, Deliberato RO, Johnson AE, Bos LD, Amorim P, Pereira SM, et al. Mechanical power of ventilation is associated with mortality in critically ill patients: an analysis of patients in two observational cohorts. Intensive Care Med. 2018;44(11):1914–22.
Zhang Z, Zheng B, Liu N, Ge H, Hong Y. Mechanical power normalized to predicted body weight as a predictor of mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Intensive Care Med. 2019;45(6):856–64.
Parhar KKS, Zjadewicz K, Soo A, Sutton A, Zjadewicz M, Doig L, et al. Epidemiology, mechanical power, and 3-year outcomes in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients using standardized screening. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2019;16(10):1263–72.
Ehaideb SN, Abdullah ML, Abuyassin B, Bouchama A. Evidence of a wide gap between COVID-19 in humans and animal models: a systematic review. Crit Care. 2020;24(1):1–23.
Tonelli R, Marchioni A, Tabbì L, Fantini R, Busani S, Castaniere I, Andrisani D, Gozzi F, Bruzzi G, Manicardi L, et al. Spontaneous breathing and evolving phenotypes of lung damage in patients with COVID-19: review of current evidence and forecast of a new scenario. J Clin Med. 2021;10:975.